Friday, May 22, 2020

Quagga Facts and Figures

Name: Quagga (pronounced KWAH-gah, after its distinctive call); also known as Equus quagga quagga Habitat: Plains of South Africa Historical Period: Late Pleistocene-Modern (300,000-150 years ago) Size and Weight: About four feet high and 500 pounds Diet: Grass Distinguishing Characteristics: Stripes on head and neck; modest size; brown posterior About the Quagga Of all the animals that have gone extinct over the past 500 million years, the Quagga has the distinction of being the first to have had its DNA analyzed, in 1984. Modern science quickly dissipated 200 years of confusion: when it was first described by South African naturalists, in 1778, the Quagga was pegged as a species of genus Equus (which comprises horses, zebras, and donkeys). However, its DNA, extracted from the hide of a preserved specimen, showed that the Quagga was actually a sub-species of the classic Plains Zebra, which diverged from the parent stock in Africa anywhere between 300,000 and 100,000 years ago, during the later Pleistocene epoch. (This shouldnt have come as a surprise, considering the zebra-like stripes that covered the Quaggas head and neck.) Unfortunately, the Quagga was no match for the Boer settlers of South Africa, who prized this zebra offshoot for its meat and its coat (and hunted it just for sport as well). Those Quaggas that werent shot and skinned were humiliated in other ways; some were used, more or less successfully, to herd sheep, and some were exported for display in foreign zoos (one well-known and much-photographed individual lived in the London Zoo in the mid-19th century). A few Quaggas even wound up pulling carts full of tourists in early 19th century England, which much have quite been an adventure considering the Quaggas mean, skittish disposition (even today, zebras are not known for their gentle natures, which helps to explain why they were never domesticated like modern horses.) The last living Quagga, a mare, died in full sight of the world, in an Amsterdam zoo in 1883. However, you may yet have the chance to see a living Quagga—or at least a modern interpretation of a living Quagga—thanks to the controversial scientific program known as de-extinction. In 1987, a South African naturalist hatched a plan to selectively breed back the Quagga from a population of plains zebras, specifically aiming to reproduce the Quaggas distinctive stripe pattern. Whether or not the resulting animals count as genuine Quaggas, or are technically only zebras that look superficially like Quaggas, will likely not matter to the tourists that (in a few years) will be able to glimpse these majestic beasts on the Western Cape.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Personal Effects Of Bullying Essay - 1739 Words

Bullying is a set of harmful behaviors that children and adults impose on others to gain a false sense of empowerment. Bullies are often intensely insecure themselves and will do anything in their power to make another human being feel worse than they currently do about themselves. Bullying is a problem within schools, workplaces, and even a family’s home. Bullying can have life long consequences for both the bully and their victim. Many children are the victims of bullies, and some take such steps as attempting to end their own life in hopes of never being bullied again. Many schools place rules and procedures in place in hopes of reducing or eliminating the presence of bullying within their educational institutions. Many of which do not†¦show more content†¦I knew my mother did not know about the abuse I was enduring and if she did, she would leave my stepfather. However, I also knew my family could not make it financially without him. Therefore, I forced myself to no longer express my frustrations through my behaviors with other people, as to not cause any suspicions with my family. I unknowingly was participating in the vortex of violence. I was displacing my anger into someone who I viewed as being weaker than I was, and therefore more deserving of my frustrations. Years later, in late middle school and throughout high school, the tables had turned and I was now the victim of bullying on many occasions and by many different bullies. When I was bullied in late middle school, my already low self esteem was broken even further as a result. Therefore, as I entered high school and experienced more hurtful acts of bullying, I had little self esteem left. I began to skip school quite often to the point where the school was threatening to kick me out due to me only going to class a total of 11 days in a semester. My mother had no idea of any of this. Even when the school threatened to kick me out, they did not contact her to inform her of my absenc es and the potential consequences for these absences. I have also been a bystander on a fewShow MoreRelatedBullying Argumentative essay970 Words   |  4 PagesWriting Argumentative Essay 25 November 2013 Bullying Have you ever seen or experienced bullying and the dramatic effects it has on its victims? Unfortunately nine out of every ten students have experienced bullying in school or online. Many people believe that bullying is a part of growing up and kids do not know any better. Bullies are intentionally causing mental and or physical damage to their victims, which will affect them for the rest of their lives. Bullying has shown that it canRead MoreIs Cyberbullying Becoming An Added Struggle Of Mental Health Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pagesbecoming an added struggle of mental health which burden the New Zealand Youth (Bilby, 2016). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Natural disaster risk assessment and risk management Free Essays

Disasters have occurred in the world over for many years. They have occurred both in MDCs and LDCs. These disasters have either been caused by human forces or natural forces or interaction of both natural and human forces. We will write a custom essay sample on Natural disaster risk assessment and risk management or any similar topic only for you Order Now When they occur they cause serious challenges and consequences to the economies of affected areas or countries. It’s estimated that the world looses over 750 dollars annually as a result of disaster. In most cases, the phenomenon that triggers disasters is beyond human control. In general the loses that causes natural disasters are largely a function of human factors which are human decisions, human actions and human choices or sometimes lack of these. Before I go into specifying a specific human disaster threat, it is important to exactly know what a disaster is or what it means. A disaster means misfortunes or calamities. It can also be termed as an incident of great harm and distress. It’s a serious disruption of functions of society causing widespread human, material or environmental loses that exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources. In this case, I am going to specifically dwell on earthquake as a natural disaster and its threats. Earthquake is a tremor caused by the disturbance of the earth surface. When it happens it causes great destruction economically, socially and even psychologically to the people living around. Because earthquakes are natural disasters, human have no control over them and this can explain why naturally occurring disasters have serious impact on human society. They only leave human beings with the option of reducing their impacts when they occur. As I have mentioned before, disaster is a result of human force, natural force or a combination of both; management for these disasters have been put in place. Disaster management simply is a body of policy and administrative decisions and operational activities which pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. So disaster management body has to come up with personnel and facilities dealing with earthquakes. The personnel includes both the administrative, individuals and community actions who try to minimize loss of lives or/and damage of facilities. This they do through disaster preparedness includes efforts for effective rescue of people involved in the earthquake disaster, relief and also rehabilitation and reconstruction of destroyed materials like buildings. The administration, individuals and community also engage in disaster mitigation which encompasses all measures to reduce the impact the earthquake disaster phenomenon by improving the community’s ability o withstand the impact of the earthquake. This they do through the prevention, preparedness and real response of earthquake disaster during or after which includes relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Earthquake disaster will definitely leave behind vulnerable people who are prone to it again incase it occurs again. To be vulnerable is to live with a likelihood that one will suffer from hazardous events. In the society, some people are more vulnerable than others. The nearness to hazardous places the more the consequence one will face. Earlier, earthquake disasters have established that natural hazards are a cause of vulnerability to disasters. People who live or work in certain areas are prone to disasters that may occur to such areas. This means that humans living or working in certain areas make themselves vulnerable to earthquakes disaster, for example if they live in areas of volcanic activities then they are prone to earthquakes or earth movements respectively. Vulnerability is simply reduced to zero by people not living in affected areas. Scientists, technologists and engineers have attempted to predict hazardous events and development of technologies that can enable human structures to withstand earthquakes. The assumption has been that events are acts of nature that cannot be prevented but rather there are possibilities of reducing their consequences. As a result of this, technologies and materials for building and construction for example have been developed so that they can withstand earthquakes or earth movements. In spite of many games in the scientific and technological process to control vulnerability to earthquake disasters people continue to be injured, die and loss of property. One reason for this is because many earthquake disasters predictions and other mitigative technology are costly and individuals and communities are either unwilling or unable to afford them. The costs tend to set criteria for deciding on what mitigation methods to use under various circumstances.   So according to this view, although vulnerability is a cost, vulnerability reduction is itself costly. As I mentioned before, disaster does not choose specific people and the nearer one gets to it or lives near it the more vulnerable he or she becomes. Earthquakes disasters do not choose the poor or the rich but it affects anyone or everyone. So earthquake or earth movement disasters impose a varied number of consequences on the humans, animals, physical and environmental aspects. These consequences can be in view of the time period of a disaster that is either short term, mid term or long term. To UNECLAC, effects of disasters are short term consequences of disaster that comprise of direct damage,, indirect damages and secondary effect. Impacts comprise of economic, social, psychological and environmental impacts. These are mainly long term consequences of disasters. The worst case scenario that determines the degree of risk is whereby disaster occurs because people who are vulnerable simply do not know when the disaster may occur, what protection measures to take and these coupled with negative attitudes towards use of certain measures. This increases human suffering from disastrous situation. A good example here is a case where by simple earth tremors or movements occur frequently leaving   people with a normal assumption that such have been happening and that have never had effect on them. This will definitely make everyone to take such scenarios for granted not knowing that one day the tremor can turn out to be an earthquake. When it turns to be earthquake, it will find everyone unaware and hence will end up affecting the majority. The fact that disaster can happen anywhere and anytime, everyone should be prepared. Earthquakes disasters are categorized as either simple, Meagre or complex. What one society can look at as a simple earthquake disaster can be perceived as complex earthquake disaster by another society. Some disasters are also seen as rapid while others seen as slow. I may say that most earthquakes disasters can be considered as initially slow or creeping because mostly they begin as earth movement or tremors before ending up as earthquakes which are considered to being rapid. Earthquakes are as a result of natural forces or an interaction of human and natural hence they are beyond human control thus the society should be prepared on how they can be mitigated however much costly it may be. People should also be prepared because of the damages the earth quakes cause whether partial or complete destructions of physical infrastructure like buildings, people, communication networks, machineries, etc.   They can be indirect damages that the damage to the flow of goods and services that can neither be produced nor distributed when a disaster occurs. Indirect damages are of four folds namely; increased population costs, increased damages, loss of corporate incomes and unexpected expenditures. In conclusion, earthquake disasters neither belong to the rich or poor but to everyone. This means it can affect everyone as long as one lives on the earth’s surface. References www.redcross.com How to cite Natural disaster risk assessment and risk management, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The River Of Freedom Essay Example For Students

The River Of Freedom Essay In Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn, the Mississippi River plays many roles and holds a prominent theme throughout much of the story. Huck and Jim are without a doubt the happiest and most at peace when floating down the river on their raft. The river has a deeper meaning than just water and mud, almost to the extent of having its own ideal personality. It provides the two characters a means of escape from everything and everyone, and puts them at ease. Although quite constrained in its capacity to provide freedom of movement, the raft offers the two a certain amount of freedom in actions, words, and emotions. Huck senses this truth when he mentions how; other places feel so cramped and smothery, but a raft dont. You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable on a raft.; (Twain, 113) However, the freedom that is experienced on the raft can be deceiving. This freedom is only temporary and will not last forever. Huck and Jim cannot live on a raft traveling down the Mississippi forever and m ust focus on the main situation at hand, getting Jim his true freedom A freedom that stretches beyond the limiting reaches of a raft. Huckleberry resents the objectives and beliefs of the so-called civilized; people of the society around him. Huck likes to be free from the restrictions of others and just be himself, living by his own rules. He disbelieves the societal beliefs that have been embedded in his mind since birth, which is shown by his brother-like relationship with Jim, a runaway slave. Only on the raft do they have the chance to practice the idea of brotherhood which they are so devoted to. When Rifkin, 2on the raft, peacefully wading down the river, skin color plays no major part in the way that they interact and outright racist perception is nonexistent. The river is the only form of separation from all of the negative virtues of society which Huck has access to. However, it still does not completely separate them from what they disbelieve in. Although the river allows them a certain amount of freedom at first, this freedom is very limited in its capacity, for they must still make a big effort to avoid others, hiding by day and floating down the river by night. Huck has to constantly invent new stories to tell nearby boatsmen or any other people who might interfere with their quest for freedom. We will write a custom essay on The River Of Freedom specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Another appeal of the river its ideal peacefulness. It does not seem like Huck enjoys the company of others too much with the exception of Jim, Tom Sawyer, and secondary characters such as Mary Jane Wilks. He seems to enjoy a tranquil environment where there are not many unnecessary annoyances. When he and Jim anchor to watch the sun rise, he mentions that there was; Not a sound anywhere- perfectly still- just like the whole world was asleep; (113) With just Huck and Jim on the raft things probably would tend to be more quiet for two people can only talk for so long, as opposed to having mixed conversations with many people. He loves these moments which possibly last for even days at a time, for at one point Huck says; Two or three days and nights went by; I reckon I might say they swum by, they slid along so quiet and smooth and lovely.; (113) This degree of peace and appreciation of quietness took time to get accustomed to and strengthens every time they return from the land. The m ore they venture onto the shore, the more they appreciate everything the raft has to offer. Hucks attachment to the raft and his companion grows every time he returns to the serenity of the raft. Not only does he enjoy Rifkin, 3in a way being cut off from society, but he somewhat becomes detached from it, not realizing that he has entered the realm at times. Although the river provides such heavenly things to Huck and Jim, it is also a source of danger, and the threat is ever-present. There is the threat of the raft being ripped apart during storms. (Thunderstorms on the Mississippi were especially severe) This threat

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Timeline of Brown v. Board of Education

Timeline of Brown v. Board of Education In 1954, in a unanimous decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state laws segregating public schools for African-American and white children was unconstitutional. The case, known as Brown v. Board of Education overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling, which was handed down 58 years earlier. The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling was a landmark case that cemented the inspiration for the Civil Rights Movement.   The case was fought through the legal arm of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) which had been fighting civil rights battles since the 1930s. 1866 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is established to protect the civil rights of African-Americans. The act guaranteed the right to sue, own property, and contract for work. 1868 The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. The amendment grants the privilege of citizenship to African-Americans. It also guarantees that a person cannot be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. It also makes it illegal to deny a person equal protection under the law. 1896 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in an 8 to 1 vote that the â€Å"separate but equal† argument presented in the Plessy v. Ferguson case. The Supreme Court rules that if â€Å"separate but equal† facilities were available for both African-American and white travelers there was no violation of the 14th Amendment. Justice Henry Billings Brown wrote the majority opinion, arguing The object of the [Fourteenth] amendment was undoubtedly to enforce the equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to endorse social, as distinguished from political, equality[...] If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane. The sole dissenter, Justice John Marshal Harlan, interpreted the 14th Amendment in another way contending that â€Å"our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.† Harlan’s dissenting argument would support later arguments that segregation was unconstitutional.   This case becomes the basis for legal segregation in the United States. 1909 The NAACP is established by W.E.B. Du Bois and other civil rights activists. The purpose of the organization is to fight racial injustice through legal means. The organization lobbied to legislative bodies to create anti-lynching laws and eradicate injustice in its first 20 years. However, in the 1930s, the NAACP established a Legal Defense and Education Fund to fight legal battles in court. Headed by Charles Hamilton Houston, the fund created a strategy of dismantling segregation in education.   1948   Thurgood Marshall’s strategy of fighting segregation is endorsed by the NAACP Board of Directors.  Marshall’s strategy included tackling segregation in education. 1952 Several school segregation cases- which had been filed in states such as Delaware, Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia and Washington DC- are combined under Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. By combining these cases under one umbrella shows the national significance. 1954 The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson. The ruling argued that the racial segregation of public school is a violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause. 1955 Several states refuse to implement the decision. Many even consider it, â€Å"[N]ull, void, and no effect† and begin establishing laws arguing against the rule. As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court issues a second ruling, also known as Brown II. This ruling mandates that desegregation must occur â€Å"with all deliberate speed.† 1958 Arkansas’ governor, as well as lawmakers, refuse to desegregate schools. In the case, Cooper v. Aaron  the U.S. Supreme Court remain steadfast by arguing that states must obey its rulings as it is an interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Live Oak - Description, Planting and Growing

Live Oak - Description, Planting and Growing Live Oak Introduction A large, sprawling, picturesque tree, usually graced with Spanish moss and strongly reminiscent of the Old South.  Live oak is one of the broadest spreaders of the Oaks, providing large areas of deep, inviting shade. Live oak is the state tree of Georgia. Reaching 60 to 80 feet in height with a 60 to 100-foot spread and usually possessing many sinuously curved trunks and branches, live oak is an impressive sight for any large-scale landscape. An amazingly durable American native, it can measure its lifetime in centuries if properly located and cared for in the landscape. It is also often wrongly planted in small landscapes and right-of-ways where it is doomed to heavy pruning and ultimate removal. The live oaks scientific name is  Quercus virginiana  and pronounced like  Ã‚  KWERK-us ver-jin-ee-AY-nuh.The trees most used common name is  Southern Live Oak  and in the family Fagaceae. It grows inUSDA hardiness zones  7B through 10B, is native to the North American south and generally available in many areas within its hardiness range.  The oak is generally used in wide tree lawns but adapts well in large parking lot islands. It is a magnificent specimen tree in open landscapes. Michael Durr in Manual of Woody Landscape Plants says it is a massive, picturesque, wide-spreading, evergreen tree with magnificent horizontal and arching branches that form a broad rounded canopy; a single tree constitutes a garden. A Botanical Description of Live Oak As I have mentioned, live oak has a moderate height but a spread to  120 feet. The live oak crown uniformity is a  canopy that is  symmetrical and  with a regular (or smooth) outline and all  individuals have more or less identical broad crown forms. A live oaks crown approximates round but has a definite look of spreading vertically. The crown can be considered dense but its growth rate is medium to slow which means that it can only become a prime tree specimen over many decades. Live oak branches will continuously droop as the tree grows and will require pruning for vehicular or pedestrian clearance beneath the canopy. This is why a small urban median between moderately wide avenues will make for problems. The oak does have a showy trunk and should be grown on a single leader with substantial height. The live oak leaf is thickly green and persistent through the winter. The leaf arrangement is alternate, the leaf type is simple and the leaf margin is entire. Managing a Live Oak in the Landscape A live oak tree will grow  in part shade/part sun and in full sun. It tolerates many soils including  clay, loam, sand, acidic, alkaline and  occasionally wet but best on  well-drained soils. The tree has a high tolerance of drought, a high tolerance of salty atmosphere and a moderate tolerance for salt in the soil. You will need to prune this tree regularly to develop strong structure when in a managed landscape that has vehicular traffic. The tree is extremely resistant to breakage and will not be a problem in any but the strongest of storms. Live oak is usually pest-free. Occasionally mites infest the foliage, but they are of little concern in the landscape. There is some concern for a newly discovered Texas live oak decline. Galls cause homeowners much concern but should not. These trees  suffer with many types of galls which  can be on the leaves or twigs of Quercus virginiana. Most galls are harmless so chemical controls are not suggested. Live Oak In Depth Once established, the live oak will thrive in almost any location within its natural range and is very resistant to wind and its resulting damage. Live Oak is a tough, enduring tree that will respond with vigorous growth to plentiful moisture on well-drained soil. Like other oaks, care must be taken to develop a strong branch structure early in the life of the tree. Be sure to eliminate multiple trunks and branches which form a narrow-angle with the trunk as these are likely to split from the tree as it grows older. Be sure that an adequate landscape area is given to live oak as roots will grow under curbs and sidewalks when planted in confining soil spaces. When visiting large southern coastal cities (Mobile, Savannah) you will these trees thriving in these urban settings and their ability to lift sidewalks, curbs and driveways. This is the cost many are willing to pay for a live oak urban forest. One of the biggest problems with live oak in cities, towns and private landscapes is e lack of pruning. This tree can live for a very long time and it is important to develop proper trunk and branch structure early in the life of the tree. Following planting  in the landscape, prune the tree each year for the first three years, then every five years to age 30. This program will help ensure that the tree develops into a strong, long-lived fixture in the community, and will help develop the 14 to 15 foot tall vehicle clearance needed for planting along city streets. Source Dirr, Michael A. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propogation and Uses. Bonnie Dirr (Illustrator), Margaret Stephan (Illustrator), et al., Revised edition, Stipes Pub Llc, January 1, 1990.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The tax issues Starbucks is facing with the UK government Essay

The tax issues Starbucks is facing with the UK government - Essay Example Their action of tax evasion stoked public protests whereby demonstrators brandishing ply cards flushing harsh words against Starbucks. Example of one held in a crowd huddled up in one of the entrances of a Starbuck coffee branch read â€Å" 74% of 45 billion pounds benefit cuts taken from women’s income† while another screamed in bold â€Å" Starbucks have not paid tax since 2009 (Mangold, 2010)†. The protesters seething with vent also threatened to switch allegiance to rival companies like Costa. These threats appeared to shake-up Starbuck who feared their customers were starting to decline and this compelled them to appease the population by volunteering to the British taxman 10 million pounds more tax than required by law for the years 2013-14. Since the start of the economic depression that ails most of the western world there has been deliberate action to conjure up ways to hoard up monies to revive the economy. One of ways to expand the exchequer is to invoke strict laws to close down on tax evaders and enact tougher punishments for offence (Gilbert, 2008, p. 67). This has been the main attribute as to the disclosure of how much cooperation tax Starbuck and other large corporate pay and prompting the revenue collectors up to their ante. A scrutiny at a SWOT analysis of Starbucks reveals its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Starbucks Corporation serves restaurants and coffeehouses worldwide with its headquarters in the USA. Its revenue and profits for 2012 were $ 13.29 billion and $ 1.38 billion respectively (Barney, 2009). With its CEO Howard Schultz, Starbucks employs 149,000 employees. Some of its biggest competitors include MacDonald Corp., Costa Coffee, Caribou Coffee Company, Dunkin Brands Group, and Green Mountain Coffee Roasters among others. Starbuck is the no. 1 brand coffeehouse chain in the